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ANCESTRY OF LAUDENSLAGER FAMILY (of Lehigh County, Pa.) -- plus -- connections to early families of Agel, Jockel, Reber, Jarret, Wetzel, Hamman, Stoudt, Kemmerer, Keck, Ritter, Roeder, Fink, Horn, Correl, Ettinger, and Fehler. Charles F. Kerchner, Jr., P.E. Member: Lehigh County Historical Society Macungie Historical Society Upper Milford Township Historical Society Berks County Genealogical Society Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center Sons of the American Revolution Research Started: 1975 This Report Written: Nov 29, 1993 Webpage Created: Sep 01, 1996 Latest Revision: Feb 01, 2014 Errors and omissions excepted. Much effort has been made by this researcher to double check and verify the information in this report. However, erroneous information occasionally slips by the critical eye of every researcher. If anyone reading this report uncovers and can document any errors or omissions, or would like to make suggestions, please feel free to contact me at the above address. I welcome your input. Copyright (c) 1993-2005 Charles F. Kerchner, Jr. All Rights Reserved
ANCESTRY OF LAUDENSLAGER FAMILY It is a rare individual who does not at some point in their life ponder some of the great questions of life. Where did I come from? Why am I here? Who am I? And when we reach that point we are not seeking simplistic answers. There is a yearning from within that seeks more. Who am I? When someone asks another person that question they will probably be told their name as the answer. So your name is one answer to that question. Thus part of who we are as a human being is our name. But where did we get this name? The answer given is - from our parents. But where did they get their name? From their parents. And they from their parents. And so on, and so on. But where did they get their name originally and who were they? And so the search begins. To learn more about who we are. And to do that we must learn more about our name and the people who came before us who bore that name and passed it on to us. So we pursue the trail of who we are in part by tracing our name and the ancestors who bore that name. So in particular, what do we know about the family name of Laudenslager. The Laudenslager surname is an occupation derived surname and according to various surname research reports and family traditions, could have one of two possible meanings. The first, and most supported by the experts, is that the surname means lute striker or player, thus a musician. The second, which is based on tradition in some descendant families, is that the surname means bell toller or ringer, as in church bells. Several German language family name books report that the name means lute striker or player. It is similar to the German word "Lautenspieler" which means "lute-player" from the German root words "laute" for lute and "spielen" for play. "Schlager" means to strike or hit in German. So the name according to these reports means "lute-striker" or "lute-player". Recent discovery of two versions of the Lautenschlager Coats of Arms showing a lute thereon also supports this lute player name meaning. Contacts with various German surname and language experts over the Internet indicates "lute player" is the correct meaning. But some family stories and traditions passed down by descendants in Pennsylvania indicated that the surname had something to do with bells, that is, someone who rang bells, possibly at a church. One more adventurous story tells of an early Adam Lautenschlager, an orphan whose parents died at sea on the way over to Pennsylvania in 1771, having sailed the world for many years as a young lad on a ship on which he would ring the ship's bell, very loudly, etc. But historical evidence does not support the story. Church, land, and legal records place this person firmly in Pennsylvania as a young lad, on the land, as a weaver and farmer. There is no evidence whatsoever that he ever worked on a ship. Thus, based on some family traditions, it is an occupation-derived surname relating to a person who worked as a bell toller/striker/ringer, probably for a church. A logical English translation of the name could be a "loud bell ringer". It is not certain whether the surname refers to a person who would toll the church steeple bells or whether it refers to a person who played the musical hand bells in a church. If we break apart the compound noun surname of Lautenschlager into parts and we analyze those nouns and see what those German words mean it can sometimes give us a clue as to the meaning of a name. The German word "laut" means loud. In fact the English word loud comes from this German word. The German word "lauten" means to sound or toll or ring with church bells. The German word "schlager" means hitter or striker. And logically bells are also loud so it sort of fits. So the family stories about the name meaning a "bell ringer" could have arisen out of that type of analysis. But the German word "laute" means lute, a stringed musical instrument. So by this method of analysis the surname could also mean one who sounded or struck the strings loud or well on the lute and/or played the instrument strongly or loudly. However, as I mentioned previously, the native German scholars I have communicated with regarding this surname all say it definitely means "lute-player" and does not mean a "loud bell ringer". The original form was probably "Johann George der Lauten Schlager", meaning Johann George the Lute Striker or the Loud Bell Ringer, i.e., George the Lute Player or George the Loud Bell Ringer. The definite article 'der' in the name eventually was dropped, and the name became Johan George Lauten Schlager. Eventually the last two parts were joined to become the surname of Lautenschlager. The name was originally spelled in the U.S. as "Lautenschlager" and was misspelled gradually over the years by the predominantly English registrars. First the "t" was changed to a "d". Then the "ch" was dropped. Thus the name gradually evolved to the present day spelling of "Laudenslager." For more information concerning occupation-related names, consult the German-English Genealogical Dictionary by Ernest Thode, German-American Names by George F. Jones, and the Dictionary of German Names by Hans Bahlow, 1993 English language edition. When researching this name expect to find it misspelled phonetically many ways in church, census, tax records, newspaper accounts, etc. Some examples I have found in my research are: Lautenschlager (the original spelling), Laudenschlager, Laudeschlegel, Laudenschilder, Laundenslager, Lauderslagle, Lauderslayer, Lautenshlager, Lautenslager, Lautensleger, Lautenschlaeger, Lautenschleger, and Lauteschleyer. In addition I have found some records with farther off misspellings such as Lawtenschlager, Leutenschlager, Loudenslager, Lowdenslager, Loutersleger, Loutinchler, and Lowdersleger. If one says the names Lawtenschlager, Leutenschlager, and Lowdenslager over and over in one's mind, with various accented variations of the Pennsylvania German dialect, one can easily imagine how the misspelling came about. One must have an open mind and look for all possible phonetic misspellings when researching this family name.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 2 Also, when researching German families of the 1700's one must understand a very common naming custom practiced by the German's of those times. When baptized, the child was given a spiritual church name in addition to their given secular name. This spiritual name was recorded as their first given name in the baptismal record. What we would now call the person's middle name was actually their secular second given name. Thus a person baptized Johan George Lautenschlager was known to the secular world only as George Lautenschlager. You would only see the spiritual name of that person used by that person, if used at all after baptism, at important religious events such as confirmation or marriage. Sometimes the person may have used the first initial with his legal secular name such as J. George Lautenschlager. Many families used the same spiritual name for all their children. Thus all the male children were Johan this or Johan that. And all the females would be Anna Maria this or Anna Maria that. So remember this when researching early German family names. The Laudenslagers, according to family tradition and a report in the History of Lehigh County, by Roberts, published in 1914, were alleged to have emigrated in the 1770's from Germany. The article on page 790 of the History of Lehigh County reports that they arrived about 1776. However no ships carrying immigrants arrived in that year due to the on-going Revolutionary War and the blockade of further immigration to the colonies by the British. My research indicates that our direct progenitor named George emigrated in the year 1771 from a forested mountainous area known as the Odenwald, Hessen, Germany which is near the cities of Darmstadt and Heidelberg. They were "Evangelisch" which in German means they were Protestants as compared to Roman Catholic. They were of the Lutheran religion. Immigrants from this region of Germany were all known as "Palatines" even though many were not from the Reich State of Palatinate. Many were from the states of Hessen and Baden-Wuerttemburg. The immigrants came to America because of religious persecution, political tyranny, poor economic conditions, and frequent wars, all of which were the rule rather than the exception in this area during the 1600's and 1700's. Roman Catholic monarchs and electors fought Protestant princes and electors to gain control of this area of Germany. The "Thirty Year War" (1618-1648) destroyed most of this area and much of Europe. Over 70% of the population of the Palatinate was lost in this struggle. The Thirty Year War ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia. The treaty guaranteed peaceful co-existence between all religious denominations. However peace did not prevail. Many politically motivated religious wars occurred in this area of Germany in the late 1600's and early 1700's. During the last decade of the 1600's, King Louis XIV, the ruthless Catholic monarch of France, succeeded in the destruction of the Palatinate. He wiped out it's military power and installed Roman Catholic control in the area. This, plus the unexpected conversion to Roman Catholicism (for political reasons) of Frederick Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, had reduced German Protestant political and military power to a low point. Another war, the "War of Spanish Succession" (1701-1714), saw armies marching back and forth across this region. The "War of Polish Succession" (1733-1738), resulted in French armies again overrunning and occupying this area. Catholic French officers were forcibly quartered in Protestant homes. Protestant cities and churches were destroyed and the persecution and economic hardships became unbearable. This, plus the economic opportunities of the New World, set the stage for what was to become a massive emigration from the region.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 3 Another interesting side note was that William Penn's mother, Margaret Jasper of Rotterdam, Holland, had German cousins. This may have also played a part in why Pennsylvania was offered as a haven for the religiously persecuted of Germany. Once it started, thousands of Germans traveled down the Rhine River to the ports of Holland such as Rotterdam, where they boarded ships for immigration to Pennsylvania. Some stayed in Rotterdam for awhile until they could earn enough money for their passage to America. Some traveled to England temporarily until transportation to the New World could be arranged. Upon arrival in Philadelphia they had to sign an oath of allegiance to the British Crown. Then they probably walked the six miles to Germantown, now part of Philadelphia, to be with their own kind. From here they settled in the inland counties now known as Lancaster, Berks, Lehigh, Bucks, and Northampton. These Pennsylvania Germans eventually became known as the Pennsylvania "Dutch" from a rendering of the German word "Deutsch" which means German. The Pennsylvania Germans also didn't discourage the confusion of their true nationality during the two World Wars with Germany when a public backlash against people of German sympathy and nationality occurred in this country. However it is clear we are of German heritage, not Dutch.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 4 The following is a list of Laudenslager immigrants I have located, the ship and date of arrival, and where I have found records of them residing: Laudenslager Immigrants Arrival Date Name Pa German Pioneers Settled at and Ship or Indenture List 2 Sep 1749 Matthias Lautenschlager Vol.1 p.394 Pennsylvania Ship Chesterfield 2 Sep 1749 Philip Lautenschleger Vol.1 p.395 Berks Co Pa Ship Albany Adam (x) Laudenshlager Vol.1 p.395 Bucks Co Pa 15 Sep 1749 Johannes Laudenschlager Vol.1 p.403 Phila Co Pa Ship Edinburgh 24 Aug 1750 Johann Peter Laudenschlager Vol.1 p.437 Berks Co Pa Ship Brothers 24 Sep 1751 Henrich (+) Lautenschlager Vol.1 p.468 Lehigh Co Pa Ship Neptune & Berks Co Pa 25 Sep 1751 Michel Lautenschlager Vol.1 p.470 Montgomery Ship Phoenix Co Pa 4 Oct 1752 George (x) Lawtenschlager Vol.1 p.493 Snyder Co Pa Ship Neptune Vallentin (x) Lawtenschlager Vol.1 p.494 Snyder Co Pa 26 Sep 1764 Philipp Lautenschlager Vol.1 p.693 Ship Britannia 19 Nov 1771 Johann Lautenschlager Vol.1 p.736 Ship Tyger * Johann Henrich Lautenschlager Vol.1 p.736 Lehigh Co Pa ** Johann Georg Laudenschlager Vol.1 p.737 Lehigh Co Pa ** Johann Hennrich Lautenschlager Vol.1 p.737 Lancaster Co Pa * Johan Leonard Loudenslager Indenture Lancaster Co & List Lehigh Co Pa * Anna Barbara Loudenslager Indenture Phila Co & List Lehigh Co Pa 15 Sep 1804 Mary E. Lautenschlager Vol.3 p.151 Ship Atlantic Source: Pennsylvania German Pioneers, Strassburger & Hinke, pub. 1934 Record of Indentures Bound Out As Apprentices, Servants, Etc. and of German and Other Redemptioners in the Office of the Mayor of the City of Philadelphia from October 3, 1771 to October 5, 1773, Genealogical Publishing Company; pub. 1973. Note: Individuals indicated with an "*" in the 1771 Ship Tyger list were probably siblings. Likewise individuals with an "**" were probably siblings too. Both sibling groups were probably first cousins to each other.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 5 As of this date, all records indicate that the progenitor of this family was named Johan George Lautenschlager who arrived in the area of Upper Milford Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania in 1771. My research indicates he was most likely born in 1743 in the village of Ober-Mossau, Odenwaldkreis, Hessen, Germany. Related and earlier Lautenschlagers are found in the villages of Guttersbach, Gunterfurst, Laudenau, or Reichelsheim in the Odenwald region, which is a forested and mountainous area located in the southern part of the state of Hessen, Germany. The church records for these Lautenschlägers are found at the Evangelische Church in Michelstadt, Odenwaldkreis, Hessen, Germany. I visited these villages and towns during visits to Germany in 2008 and 2013. I was able to see the original birth record entry in the original church book for the birth of our George Lautenschläger. Identifying the exact person in this region with 100% certainty has been difficult since the name Johan George Lautenschlager was quite common in that time period in that region. There were several candidates investigated over the years. One candidate was, Johan Georg Lautenschlager, born 1752, the son of Joh. Georg and Rebecca (nee Maul) Lautenschlager. He was born in the village of Brandau. He was the grandson of Nicholaus and Anna Barbara (nee Kop) Lautenschlager. They were of the Lutheran faith. The last record of this Johan Georg being in his home village was in 1767. It is assumed by German researchers that he emigrated to America. Another candidate was a Johann Georg, born 1746, the son of Johann George and Anna Elisabetha (nee Huber) Lautenschlager. He was born in the village of Ober-Mossau. He is recorded to have married Maria Catharina Jockel in 1767. Records in Germany indicate they both emigrated to Pennsylvania. Another strong candidate (which later proved to be the correct one) was a Johann George Lautenschlager, born 1743 in Ober-Mossau, the s/o Johan George Lautenschlager and Eva Margaretha Egli/Egly. Three other children of this family arrived on the ship Tyger in 1771. An interesting and germane point to me in researching these various German families is that our Johan "George" Laudenslager in Pennsylvania named his first born son Nicholaus. Then this Nicholaus subsequently named his first born son as George. This brings to mind the naming patterns and traditions of that time period as outlined in my online report titled, 18th Century Pennsylvania German Naming Customs. This would lead one to suspect that our George's first child may have been named after the child's grandfather or another close relative of our George with the name of Nicholaus Lautenschlager. Interestingly, the father of one of the "Heinrich" Lautenschlagers who arrived on the ship Tyger with our George, was named Nicholaus Lautenschlager. According to my analysis this Heinrich Lautenschlager is the one which was indentured to Lancaster Co PA according to my research. I am not 100% certain yet as to who exactly is the father of our immigrant ancestor, Johan "George" Lautenschlager. But as of today I am leaning towards the parents of our George Lautenschlager being the Johan George Lautenschlager and Eva Margaretha Egli of Ober-Mossau, Odenwald, Hessen, Germany. The church records in and around Ober-Mossau, Guttersbach, Gunterfurst, Laudenau, Asselbrunn, Michelstadt, and Reichelsheim, Odenwald, Hessen, Germany are being thoroughly researched to look for a Johann George Lautenschlager, born c1740-1746, marrying a Maria Catherina Agel, with a close relative named Nicholaus Lautenschlager and with a close family a connection to the other Lautenschlagers who are known to have arrived with our George on the ship Tyger, to prove my surmises. Research note: As a result of my trip to the Evangelische Church in Michelstadt, Odenwaldkreiss, Hessen, Germany in 2013 and YDNA testing done on a native German Lautenschläger in the village of Unter-Mossau, which abuts Ober-Mossau has resulted in a close match to our Laudenslager YDNA YSTR Haplotype profile. I am now certain of which George Lautenschlager is ours. The one born in 1743. And the science of YDNA genetic genealogy testing confirms that the Lautenschlagers from this Odenwaldkreis region of Germany are closely related to the ones who came to Pennsylvania on the ship Tyger in 1771. On this side of the Atlantic, a Johan George Lautenschlager is recorded to have arrived from Germany in Pennsylvania in the year 1771. He sailed from the port of Rotterdam, Holland, with a customs and inspection stop at Cowes on the Isle of Wight, England, on the ship Tyger. He landed in Philadelphia PA. The following is an excerpt from the book, Pennsylvania German Pioneers, Strassburger & Hinke, 1934, (3 vol. version), Vol. 1, p.736: "At Messrs. Willing & Morris's Store, at Philadelphia, the 19th of November 1771. Present: George Bryan, Esquire. The Foreigners whose Names are underwritten, imported in the Ship Tyger, George Johnson, Master, from Rotterdam but last from Cowes, did this day take and subscribe the foregoing Oaths & Qualifications. Consigned to Messrs Willing & Morris. 130 in the List." Appearing in the list of immigrants on page 737 is Johann Georg Laudenschlager. Resarch Note: While the registrar's statement at the start of the ship list states that there are "130 in the list", only 118 names are found and reproduced in the works of Strassburger and Hinke. So some 12 names are lost to history and are unaccounted for. A facsimile of our ancestor's original signature attesting his oath of allegiance and abjuration is found in the same reference in Vol. 2, p.854. From my analysis of his signature, it looks like he signed his name as: Johann Georg lauten Schlager. There are four distinct parts to his signature. He did not capitalize 'lauten' in his signature. A strong link of this individual to our George Lautenschlager is that this facsimile is exactly the way our George Lautenschlager signed the parts of his name in his will circa 1824. In addition, no other George Lautenschlager is known to have arrived during the late 1760's or early 1770's. There were three other Lautenschlager men recorded on the surviving ship list pages studied in 1934 by Strassburger & Hinke for the Ship Tyger arriving with our Johann Georg. Their names were: Johann, Johann Henrich, and Johann Hennrich (or Michael?). The one name in question has been transcribed in various reference books as two different names. Strassburger and Hinke report it's a second Hennrich. Rupp reports it's a Michael. I have personally analyzed the signature very carefully and I thought for a while that it looked like Leonnard. George, Heinrich, and Leonard Lautenschlager all appeared about the same time (1772-1779) in the Macungie Township and Upper Milford Township area of Lehigh County, then Northampton County. No other ship list record exists of any other Leonard Lautenschlager arriving during this time period. And an indentured servitude contract record is found for a Johann Leonnard Lautenschlager being recorded the same time as the contract for our Johan George and other arrivals on the Tyger are recorded. Therefore, I theorized for a time that this questionable signature is that of Johann Leonnard Lautenschlager, since there was obvious a Leonnard on the Tyger. However, various people familiar with reading German script have also told me they believe the signature reads Hennrich. Therefore, my theory that this list entry was for Leonnard is not too well supported. Also, as will be noted later an infant child named Adam also was apparently on this ship. German records indicate that this infant Adam was the child of a Johann Michael Lautenschlager. Thus there may have been a Michael Lautenschlager on one of the original lists and the various scholarly looks at these ship lists over time may have been looking at different versions of the ship lists. There were three sets of lists: A, B, & C. Not all ships had all three lists prepared and not all lists prepared survived to the times when scholars started to study them. The first known scholarly study was done in 1876. Rupp's 1876 work admits he never even looked at the C lists thinking at the time that they were merely duplicates of the B lists. That was not true. And some of the A & B lists may have been lost by 1934 when Strassburger and Hinke did their more thorough work. And we also have the Tyger "C list" header saying there are 130 people on the list and yet Strassburger and Hinke only finds 118 on the list pages available in 1934. So it is possible that six Lautenschlager males were on the ship Tyger voyage: Johann, Johann Henrich, Johann Hennrich, Johann George, Johann Leonnard, and Johann Michael. However, I do believe, and most other people I have consulted agree, that the four men found on the surviving list pages, and listed by Strassburger & Hinke who arrived on the ship Tyger, were probably related, some being siblings and others being cousins. Note: The Johann Lautenschlager on the ship Tyger may be Johannes, s/o Hans Heinrich Lautenschlager and Anna Catharina Reifwein. He is reported in German records to have left for Pennsylvania in 1771.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 6 From the book, Record of Indentures Bound Out As Apprentices, Servants, Etc. and of German and Other Redemptioners in the Office of the Mayor of the City of Philadelphia from October 3, 1771 to October 5, 1773, the 1973 reprint, Genealogical Publishing Company, pages 30 and 31, we learn that on 23 Nov 1771 Hans George Loudenslager (sic) and Maria Catharina, his wife, both arriving from the Port of Rotterdam, where indentured as servants to Peter Miller and his assigns of Upper Milford, Northampton County, for a term of four years each for the sum of 45.17.7 English Pounds. Peter Miller was the founder of Millerstown (later Macungie), Lehigh County, PA, where George Lautenschlager ultimately lived. Also indentured as a servant the very same day and listed in the record immediately below George's record was Anna Barbara Loudenslager (sic), from the Port of Rotterdam, indentured to Ulrick Storefert and his assigns of Upper Salford, Philadelphia (later Montgomery) County, for a term of three years and four months for the sum of 23.12.2 English Pounds. Anna Barbara was a sister of Johan Heinrich Lautenshlager and Johan Leonard Lautenschlager who also arrived on the ship Tyger. Anna Barbara, based on baptism records of probable children, apparently married Sebastian Wendling about 1774 and settled in Upper Milford Township near George Lautenschlager. See the baptism records of Indianfield Lutheran Church in Franconia Township, Montgomery Township and Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church in Upper Milford Township, Lehigh County for details on the Wendling children. Other Laudenslager men indentured that week were: 21 Nov 1771, Henry Loudenslager, from Port of Rotterdam, indentured as a servant to Jacob Barge (an agent) and his assigns of Philadelphia and then subsequently to John Burkholder and his assigns of Lancaster Township, Lancaster County, for three years for the sum 25.3.1. Since no wife is mentioned he is surmised to be unmarried. 21 Nov 1771, John Leonard, from Port of Rotterdam, indentured as a servant to Jacob Barge (an agent) and his assigns of Philadelphia and then subsequently to Wendel Gilbert and his assigns of Manheim Township, Lancaster County, for three years for the sum 26.6.1. Since no wife is mentioned he is surmised to be unmarried. 22 Nov 1771, Henry Loudenslager, from Port of Rotterdam, indentured as a servant to Anthony Loick and his assigns of Lower Socken (sic), Northampton County, for three years for the sum 24.18.10. Since no wife is mentioned he is surmised to be unmarried. From these indenture records we could surmise that the person on the ship list recorded as Johann is the one and the same person as the John Leonard on the indenture list. This surmise is supported by the fact that records of Leonard are found in later Pennsylvania records but none have ever been found for a Johann or a Johannes. A contra-indicator to this surmise is the fact that a Ulrich Kirschnick, a researcher in Hessen, Germany, has found record of a Johannes Lautenschlager emigrating to Pennsylvania in 1771. But then that Johannes could have been the possible husband of Anna Barbara and had died on the voyage over. But then again, all this confusion as to names on the ship lists could be explained if there were really six Lautenschlager males on the ship Tyger in 1771, instead of only the four listed by Strassburger & Hinke from the surviving ship list pages. A lot of theory. More conclusive evidence is needed to be certain.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 7 A Heinrich and Leonard Lautenschlager lived near our George Lautenschlager in Lehigh County, then Northampton County. George and Leonard were sponsors for Heinrich's children at Upper Milford Zion Lutheran Church. I believe they were brothers or first cousins. From the indentured list we now know that Johan Leonard arrived on the ship Tyger 19 Nov 1771 but was possibly under age 16 and therefore not listed on the ship list or was incorrectly listed on that list by the name of Johann, or he was missed on some of the lists or those pages of the list were lost. Also on the same ship were Johann Georg Horn and Philip (+) Egle. Philip Egle made his mark immediately above Johann Georg Lautenschlager's signature. They may have been traveling together. Their possible relationships will be explained in the next few paragraphs. According to the History of Lehigh County, by Roberts, published in 1914, Johan George, or George as he was known and reported in that book, married Catherine Agel (sic) circa 1771. I have found no record of any Agel families in the area. However I have found several Abel families. It is possible her last name was Abel. From the records at Upper Milford Zion Lutheran Church and the Indenture List, her full given name appears to be Maria Catherina. From the Indenture List we know they were married when they arrived at Philadelphia on 19 Nov 1771. I still have not found documented, primary source, written evidence of the exact birth place in Germany or birth date for Maria Catherina, nor where they were married. I have found her obituary as Catharina Lautenschlager, widow of Georg Lautenschlager, in the 31 Jan 1828 issue of the German language newspaper, Unabhaengige Republicaner. She was listed with her full name, Maria Catharina Lautenschlager, in the 7 Feb 1828 issue of the other German language newspaper, Friedens Bote. Her date of death was 18 Jan 1828 at the age of 80 years, 7 months, and 16 days. Therefore, her date of birth calculates to be 2 Jun 1747. The location of death was reported as Millerstown (now Macungie), Pa. Her maiden name was not listed nor the names of any children. We know that they were married when they arrived and an interesting possibility is that her last name was Egle and not Agel. She could have been the sister of the Philip (+) Egle, mentioned previously, who arrived on the same ship as Johan George Lautenschlager. Another possibility is that her last name was indeed Joeckel which could be variously pronounced Yockel, Yochel, or Yaegel in English. And by dropping the 'Y' off Yagel the name would become Aegel and then over time just Agel. This is a far fetched theory but worse mispronunciations have occurred as any experienced researcher can attest. Other Lautenschlager research indicates that the church records at Reichelsheim Parish in the Odenwald, near Laudenau, Hessen, Germany, report that several Lautenschlager individuals married members of the Nagel family. Therefore, another theory could be that the Agel name is actually Nagel.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 8 According to the History of Lehigh County George had six children, four sons and two daughters. The history only names two sons, a Henry, who is my progenitor, and, allegedly according to this history, a Joseph. That our George had a son named Joseph has been disproven in my research. These county histories, as most serious researchers know, often contain errors. And this allegation as to the lineage of this Joseph is one of them. As stated before, and will be subsequently shown, this history has several errors. As an example, in the following paragraph I have listed the birth records of eight children, four sons and four daughters. As a way of explaining this child count discrepancy, it is possible that two of the daughters died very young and were not known to the person who wrote the Laudenslager family history printed in the History of Lehigh County. But it is certain that the Joseph lineage, and subsequent descendants of Joseph, which is expanded upon in the History of Lehigh County, are definitely not descendants of our George. This Joseph is instead the son of Johannes and Margaretha (nee Hauser) Lautenschlager. That Johannes Lautenschlager was the son of Johan "Heinrich" Lautenschlager who also arrived on the Ship Tyger in 1771. This Johan Heinrich Lautenschlager was known by his secular name, Henry Lautenschlager. Our Johan Georg Lautenschlager was known by his secular name, George Lautenschlager. The exact relationship of our Johan George Lautenschlager and Johan Heinrich Lautenschlager is unknown at this time but they were surely related. By way of a footnote in our discussion here, an earlier immigrant, Georg 'Heinrich' Lautenschlager, arrived in 1751 on the ship Neptune. He was married to Anna Elizabeth Moatz with whom he had four known children. Earlier reports indicated that he then remarried Maria Catharina Dorothea Gunker but this is not correct. But instead, Maria Catharina Dorothea Gunker was married to the Johan 'Heinrich' Lautenschlager who arrived on the Ship Tyger in 1771 and was indentured to Lower Saucon, Northampton County, PA. This 1771 immigrant Henry had 12 known children. Our Johan 'George' Lautenschlager was a baptismal sponsor at the baptism of one of Johan 'Heinrich' Lautenschlager's daughters, Maria C. Lautenschlager.A four generation Descendant Chart for George 'Heinrich' Lautenschlager, (1739-c1794)
As I stated before, Johan Heinrich's son, Johannes (1785-1859), married Anna Margaretha Hauser (1784-1871). Johannes and Margaretha had a child named Joseph (1813-1867). The baptism of this Joseph, the grandson of Johan Heinrich, is recorded in the year 1813 at Zion Reformed Church, Allentown, Pa. It is possible that our Johan George also had a son named Joseph, but after extensive research, I have found no record of such, and at this time I do not believe our Johan George ever did have a child named Joseph. But, what is absolutely certain, is that the Joseph mentioned in the Laudenslager article in the History of Lehigh County is not a descendant of our Johan George Lautenschlager, but is instead a descendant of the Johan Heinrich Lautenschlager mentioned earlier. I have not found the connection, if any, between our Johan Georg Lautenschlager and Johan Heinrich Lautenschlager, but they are surely related. I have communicated several times with Mr. David Laudenslager, a descendant of Johan Heinrich Lautenschlager, who resides in Catasauqua, Pa. He has done considerable research on this line of the Lautenschlager clan and his records should be consulted for further information about the descendants of the Johan Heinrich Lautenschlager who was indentured in Lower Saucon Township, Northampton County, PA.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 9 As stated previously, I have located the birth records for eight known and proven children of our Johan George and Maria Catherina Lautenschlager. Recorded at Jerusalem Western Salisbury Lutheran Church, Lehigh County, Pa.: Catherine, born Dec 21, 1772, baptized Feb 21, 1773, sponsors were Conrad Seip and wife Catherine; Barbara, born Jan 11, 1775, baptized Jan 29, 1775, sponsors were George Horn and wife Barbara; Johan Nicholaus, born Apr 11, 1777, baptized Apr 27, 1777, sponsors were John N. Miller & wife; Anna E., born Jul 30, 1779, baptized Aug 29, 1779, sponsors were Iost Wens and wife Anna E.; John, born 15 Jun 1783, baptized about Jun 1783, sponsors were George Tutt and wife Magdelena. Recorded at Upper Milford Zion Lutheran Church, Lehigh County, Pa.: Jo. Wil. (originally thought this could be Joseph but now believe this person's name was Johan Wilhem), born May 4, 1785, baptized Jun 19, 1785, sponsors were Wil Schever and wife Magdalena. Recorded at Jerusalem Western Salisbury Lutheran Church: Anna E. (second use of this name?), born Sep 14, 1788, baptized Oct 12, 1788, sponsors were George Seider and wife Anna E. And lastly, but with baptismal location, sponsors, and records unknown, Henry, born Oct 28, 1790. Henry was my 4th great-grandfather and was the executor of his father's will. Some think there was a ninth and earlier child, Adam. But that is not true. Adam is discussed in the next paragraph. An unproven theory, and one that at this time I believe is not correct, is that when our Johan George Lautenschlager arrived in this country in 1771, he arrived with an infant son, Johan Adam Lautenschlager, born 18 May 1770, probably in Germany. We can find no baptism record for Johan Adam in this country. However, a record has been found of Johan Adam's confirmation at Jerusalem Western Salisbury Church in the year 1784. The only Lautenschlager adult male communicant member of this congregation at that time was our George Lautenschlager. Numerous descendants of Johan Adam, and descendants of some of George's other children, were baptized at Jerusalem Western Salisbury Church. Thus the circumstantial evidence is strong that Johan Adam was related to George. However, a contra-indicator to the theory that Adam was a son of George, is that Johan George was not a sponsor at any of the baptisms of Johan Adam's children nor was he mentioned in George's 1824 will. Thus, this Johan Adam probably was not a son, but was possibly a nephew and was just being raised as a ward by our Johan George, maybe due to the possibility that Johan Adam's real father may have died on the voyage to Pennsylvania, or soon thereafter, etc. Indeed, some descendants of Johan Adam report a family tradition that Johan Adam's parent's died on the voyage over and that he was raised by an unnamed Lautenschlager. But, not being in the will could also be explained if the father and son had a difference of views at some time and thus Adam was left out of the estate on purpose. Or maybe Adam was given his share prior to the father's death. To further this line of thought, it should be noted that other children of Johan George Lautenschlager are also not mentioned in his will. Whatever the reason, the fact that Adam, who would have been the eldest son (if he was a son), is not mentioned in George's estate makes it highly unlikely that Johan Adam could be a son of Johan George Lautenschlager. Additional research needs to be done on this surmised relationship in order to prove with certainty the exact relationship. The answer if it exists probably resides in family and church records back in Germany. For now we are going with the surmise that he was not a son. Let us review what we know about this Johan Adam Lautenschlager.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 10 Johan Adam Lautenschlager married three times. His first wife, whom he married about 1794, was Christina Reber, born circa 1773. This Christina Reber is probably the daughter of the Adam Reber who died in 1794. Christina had five known children who were baptized at St. Paul's Lutheran Church in Allentown, Pa. The children in order of birth are: Maria Eva, b. 1795; Johan Adam (Jr.), b. 1796; Elisabeth, b. 1797; Johannes, b. 1799; and Anna Margreta, b. 1801. Christina died about 1802. It is not known where she is buried. Johan Adam's second wife was named Elizabeth . They had one known child, Jacob, b. 1803, and baptized at Jerusalem Western Salisbury Church. Elizabeth died in 1819. Johan Adam's third wife was Anna Margareth Brunner, born 1775. They married about 1820. There are no known children from the third marriage. Johan Adam died 19 Jun 1847. His third wife died in 1849. Adam and his third wife, Anna Margareth Brunner, are buried in the Old Allentown Cemetery which is adjacent to the cemetery where some of the descendants of George Lautenschlager are buried. Anna Margareth's gravestone is located more towards the center of the cemetery and is still legible. I have photographed it. Adam's grave is not adjacent to his third wife's. His grave is the 5th grave (3rd remaining gravestone) in from the northeast corner of the cemetery. The gravestone which is surmised to be his is still there but it is not legible. Research Note: Information found in Nov 2004 by Mr. Ulrich Kirschnick in Germany reveals that this Johann "Adam" Lautenschlager was the son of Johann Michael Lautenschlager of Ober-Mossau, Odenwald region, Hessen, Germany.A four generation Descendancy Chart for Johan Adam Laudenslager, (1770-1847),
Another interesting point concerning the baptism of our George's children is that the one sponsor, George Horn, who is mentioned at the baptism of Barbara Lautenschlager could be the same person who is recorded in Strassburger & Hinke as arriving in 1771 on the Ship Tyger with the four Lautenschlager men. It is possible that they all came from the same village in Germany and were neighbors and/or close relatives. According to the History of Lehigh County, George was a weaver by trade and resided in Macungie Township, then Northampton County, and now Lehigh County, Pa. However, the 1790 Census records George 'Lowdenslager' residing in Upper Milford Township, Lehigh County, then part of Northampton County, Pa. The census indicates there were 8 people in his family at that time, i.e. 6 children. It lists 1 male 16 or over, 4 males under 16, and 3 females. The male 16 or over would have to be George. The 4 males under 16 are not as easy. Three of these are surely Johan N., John, and Jo. Wil. The identity of the fourth male under 16 is in question. Depending on the exact date one assumes the census marshal visited the Laudenslager household, one could surmise and make various assumptions as to whether this fourth child is either Adam or Henry. Adam would have been, in reality, age 20 at this time. No record exists which would indicate that he established a separate household, during or before the year 1790. Adam is not recorded anywhere, separately in the 1790 census. So he was probably living in some household. But was he with George during the 1790 census? We cannot be certain. The youngest known son of George Laudenslager, Henry, was not born until 28 Oct 1790. The 1790 census law was signed by the first U.S. President, George Washington on 1 Mar 1790. It contained instructions to complete the census enumeration within 9 months, i.e., by 30 Nov 1790. The first report by President George Washington was transmitted to the Congress on 27 Oct 1791. It apparently took longer to complete than expected. The exact date of completion of the counting portion of the census is unknown. Many of the original hand written schedules were burned when the British burned most of the City of Washington during the War of 1812. Some have survived though. It would be interesting to see if a copy of a dated original for this district exists.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 11 If the census marshall called on our George Laudenslager's family before 28 Oct 1790, then we could assume that the fourth child listed is Adam and that his age was either reported by the family deliberately wrong or that it was recorded incorrectly, as being under age 16. This would then support the theory of Adam being raised by George. If the census marshall made his visit to the Laudenslager family after 28 Oct 1790, then this fourth person is probably George's youngest son, Henry. This would then be a contra-indicator for Adam being raised by George. If Adam was not counted with Adam, then what happened to Adam, i.e., was he really being raised as a part of George's family? There is no record of an Adam Lautenschlager being the head of a household in 1790. Of course in 1790 Adam would have been only 20 years old and could have been farmed out and working with a neighbor and thus counted in the household where he worked. As to the females, since George's wife Catherina was living when George died circa 1824, the females would have to be his wife Catherina and two of his daughters. Therefore, two of his daughters must have died or married before the 1790 census. The death of a child could explain why, as mentioned previously, the "Anna E." name was reused. The early death or marriage of one or more daughters could also explain why the writer of the article in the History of Lehigh County reported only two daughters, since the author of that article may have been simply repeating the 1790 census data. In 1783, George Lautenschlager served as a witness for the will of Michael Hittel, Sr., possibly a close neighbor, said will being probated in 1786 at the Northampton County Courthouse, Easton, PA.
According to the Pennsylvania Archives, George served with the Northampton County Militia during the Revolutionary War. His name also appears on a large veterans' memorial monument located in the cemetery across the road from Jerusalem Western Salisbury Church. According to the church tradition, he is buried in the Old Cemetery but no one knows the exact location. I have photographed the veterans' memorial. Also a veteran's marker stone has been placed in a hallowed location with a group of other veteran's marker stones in the old cemetery, for all the graves which could not be found in the cemetery, in memory and honor of their service to their country. As I have stated, the church tradition reports he is buried somewhere in the old cemetery but no evidence to confirm this exists and his exact grave location is unknown.
It is surmised that George Lautenschlager died circa Sep 1824 since his will was signed 17 Oct 1823 and it was proven on 1 Oct 1824. His youngest son Henry Laudenslager was appointed as executor. Witnesses were William Miller and Samuel Gilbert. His will indicates that he resided in Millerstown (now Macungie), Macungie Township, Lehigh County, PA. He owned 6 acres of land with a house and shop. George's personally signed will, File No. 584, was proved at the Lehigh County Courthouse on October 1, 1824. I have obtained a copy. His signature is in four distinct parts: Johan Georg lauten Schlager. A side-by-side comparison of this signature to the signature appearing in the 1771 Ship Tyger list, confirms that this is the same person. Despite the older signature being shakier, because of his advanced age, the signatures very closely resemble each other. In addition to both signatures being in four parts, the "l" in the third part of the name is not capitalized in both signatures. Also the name Georg is signed in both cases without an ending "e" and the letter "S" beginning the last part is capitalized and is identical in form in both signatures. In my opinion the signatures definitely appear to have been signed by the same person. I am convinced this is our progenitor. In his will he states his surviving wife's name, Catherine, and he appoints his son, Henry, who was my 4th great-grandfather, as the executor of his estate.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 12 My research also reveals that two other Lautenschlager men arrived in the Upper Milford Township area in the mid 1770's at the same time as our George. They were Leonard and Henry Lautenschlager. There were two Henry's on the Ship Tyger. It is assumed that the Henry who ended up in what is now Lehigh County PA is the Johann Hennrich who is listed immediately below Johann Georg in the Tyger ship list. It is also assumed that this Henry was probably the brother of our Johann George Lautenschlager. As mentioned before, it is known from the Indenture List that a Leonard was also on the Ship Tyger. I believe that Leonard and Henry were closely related to George. They were probably brothers, or 1st cousins. George and Leonard were each a sponsor at the baptism of the two known children of Henry. Also a sponsor for one of George's children, Wil Schever, was also a sponsor for one of Leonard's children. The following is a record of the baptism of Leonard's and Henry's known children. My best estimate at this time is that the three male Lautenschlager immigrants who ended up in what is now Lehigh County PA were probably brothers. Johan Leonard Lautenschlager is surmised, based on the Indenture List data, to have been unmarried when he arrived. He later married Elisabetha Wandel, d/o Tobias Wandel. They baptized their four known children at Upper Milford Zion Lutheran Church, Lehigh County, Pa.: Catharina, born May 11, 1779, baptized Jun 12, 1779, sponsors were Baltzer Faderman and wife Catharina; Magdelena, born Dec 17, 1781, baptized Mar 3, 1782, sponsors were Willen Schever and wife Mag.; Sara, born Oct 31, 1784, baptized Nov 28, 1784, sponsors were Philip Federman and wife Sara; and lastly Nicolaus, born Oct 10, 1787, baptized Apr 20, 1788, sponsors were Nicolaus Stheler and wife Barbara. Johan Heinrich Lautenschlager is surmised, based on the Indenture List data, to have been unmarried when he arrived. He later married Maria Catharina Dorothea Gunker. They baptized two of their children at Upper Milford Zion Lutheran Church, Lehigh County, Pa.: Maria C., born Dec 12, 1779, baptized May 4 1780, sponsors were Georg Laudeschlegel (sic) and wife Maria; and lastly Elisabetha, born Dec 20, 1784, baptized Mar 26, 1785, sponsors were Leonhard Laudeschlegel (sic) and wife Elisabetha.A four generation Descendancy Chart for Johan George Laudenslager, (1743-1824),
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 13 Henry Laudenschlager (1790-1871), my 4th great-grandfather, was born October 28, 1790, probably in Macungie Township, Lehigh County, then Northampton County, Pa. He was his father's youngest son. The History of Lehigh County, by Roberts, published in 1914, reports that he was born October 28, 1790. His tombstone says he was born in 1791 but this does not agree with the calculated birth year determined by using his age and date of death which were engraved on the same tombstone. Since the 1790 birth date correlates better with his parents' 1790 census data, I have assumed the tombstone birth year to be incorrect and that his year of birth is 1790. The History of Lehigh County and family records report that Henry married Lydia Hamman, born August 23, 1794. It also reports that he lived the early part of his life in Macungie Township but moved to Allentown, Pa., in 1831. Based on the date of birth of the earliest known child, they were probably married in the year 1813. Their seven known children were: Nathan (b. Jul 5, 1814, d. Jun 30, 1900); Catharine (b. c1816), married Joseph Correl; Susanna (b. Dec 22, 1818, died Mar 12, 1913), married Amos Ettinger; Elizabeth (b. Aug 5, 1821, d. Mar 28, 1907), Sarah (aka Sally, b. May 19, 1826, d. Apr 1, 1858), Henry L. (b. Oct 11, 1830, d. Mar 5, 1915)), and Charles (b. Nov 21, 1832, d. May 27, 1865). Henry died on May 28, 1871. His wife died on August 10, 1884. They are both buried in Section D, Lot 408, at Union West End Cemetery, 10th and Chew Sts., Allentown, Pa. Their markers are laid flat in the ground and are hard to find because the grass grows over them and obscures them. To locate the tombstones, drive into the cemetery about 200 feet using the 10th Street entrance gate. Their graves are just off the left (south) side of the lane. As a reference, look for the square vertical obelisk style tombstone with the name "Ritter" on it. I have photographed their tombstones. Nathan Laudenslager (1814-1900), my 3rd great-grandfather, was born on July 5, 1814, in Macungie Township, Lehigh County, Pa. He was baptized on July 31, 1814, at the Lehigh Zion Lutheran Church in Lower Macungie Township, Pa. Nathan married Rebecca Horn on July 13, 1834, at the Zion Reformed Church, Allentown, Pa. His wife was born December 18, 1814, the daughter of Abraham and Anna Marit (nee Helper) Horn. Their six known children were: George Henry (b. Nov 30, 1834, d. Jan 2, 1853); William And. (b. Apr 10, 1810); Charles L. N. (b. Feb 27, 1840, d. May 8, 1871); Mary E. (b. Nov 20, 1845, d. Sep 7, 1896); Eliza M. (b. c1849, d. May 20, 1905); and Sally L. (b. c1852, d. aft 1922). A brief mention of Nathan and his wife is made in the History of Lehigh County, by Roberts, published in 1914. His occupation was reported as a tinsmith, businessman, and banker. He owned an interest in the Allentown Gas-Light Company, the predecessor to UGI. A sketch of Nathan and an article about him appears in the History of the Counties of Lehigh and Carbon PA, published in 1884, page 227. His grandfather is incorrectly reported in this article as George H. Laudenslager. The middle initial being reported as H. for the grandfather in this article is another apparent confusion between the immigrants Johan George and George Heinrich Laudenslager. There are also articles on page 221 and 246 which mention Nathan Laudenslager's business interests in the Allentown Gas-Light Company and the Catasauqua National Bank.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 14 Nathan died on June 30, 1900. His wife died on June 3, 1883. They are both buried in Lot 103 at the Allentown Cemetery, Fountain and Turner Sts., Allentown, Pa. The markers are laid flat in the ground and are hard to find because the grass grows over them and obscures them. The graves are located just off the west side of the macadam walkway which passes through the cemetery from Turner to Linden Street. As a reference, look for the "Loose" family vertical style tombstones which are located immediately in front of the Lautenschlager family flat style, level with the ground, markers. They are located nearer the Linden Street side. I have photographed their tombstones. Charles L. Nathan Laudenslager (1840-1871), my 2nd great-grandfather, was born February 27, 1840, in Allentown, Lehigh County, Pa. Charles married Elemanda Hunsicker on April 30, 1865. She was born April 28, 1844. Their two known children were: George Henry (b. May 8, 1866, d. Jan 15, 1953) and Charles L. Jr. (b. Dec 6, 1869, d. Aug 16, 1935). His name is mentioned in the History of Lehigh County, by Roberts, published in 1914, and on file at the Lehigh County Historical Society, Allentown, Pa. Charles died at the young age of 31 on May 8, 1871. His wife died on December 24, 1901. They are both buried at the Allentown Cemetery, Fountain and Turner Sts., Allentown, Pa., but in different lots. He is buried in Lot No. 103 with his parents. His marker is laid flat in the ground and is hard to find because the grass grows over it and obscures it. His marker is cracked in half, heavily weathered, and difficult to read. His grave is located next to his parents' markers, one row off the west side of the macadam walkway which passes through the cemetery from Turner to Linden Street. As a reference, look for the "Loose" family vertical style tombstones which are located immediately in front of the Lautenschlager family flat style, level with the ground, markers. They are located nearer to the Linden Street side. His wife is not buried with him but is instead buried with her sons George Henry and Charles L. (Jr.), in Lot No. 179, in the same cemetery. Her stone is immediately to the right of her son's, Charles L. (Jr.). Her's says "Mother" on top. Her son's says "Rest" on top. The first impression when looking at these stones, without giving much thought to the dates on them, etc., would be to assume they are husband and wife since her stone states her name and says she is the wife of Chas. L. Laudenslager and the stone to her immediate left has the name Charles L. Laudenslager on it. However this is her son, Charles L. (Jr.), not her husband. As I said before, her husband is buried in Lot No. 103 with his parents. I have photographed their tombstones. George Henry Laudenslager (1866-1953), my great-grandfather, was born May 8, 1866, in Allentown, Lehigh County, Pa. George married (c1887) Lillian Jane Koch, the daughter of Joseph and Matilda Louisa (nee Keiper) Koch. She was born on January 16, 1868. Their nine known children were: Raymond Austin (Jun 5, 1888), Charles Nathan (Sep 7, 1889), Paul (c1890), Florence M. (c1892), Harold G. (circa Dec 1893), Frederick (c1895), Ellen Esther (c1896), Nathan J. (May 15, 1900), and Jesse D. (Aug 2, 1902). According to his death certificate, at the time of his death, he resided at 453 Tilghman Street, Allentown , Pa. Also on the certificate was his usual occupation which was recorded as the Assistant Assessor for the City of Allentown, Lehigh County, Pa.An Ancestry Chart for Lillian Jane Koch is provided on a separate page.
LAUDENSLAGER ANCESTRY Page 15 George died on January 15, 1953. His wife died on March 4, 1923. They are buried in Lot 179 at the Allentown Cemetery, Fountain and Turner Sts., Allentown, Pa. Their tombstones are the traditional vertical upright style and are located several rows in off the west side of the macadam walkway which passes through the cemetery from the Turner Street entrance to Linden Street. They are close to the Turner Street side. George's mother is also buried on their plot along with some of George's children. This cemetery has been the target of repeated vandalism. Most of the vertical tombstones are repeatedly knocked over and then put back up by officials but then are knocked over again. I personally have had to upright their tombstones after they were pushed over. Thus, even though George's father's flat style tombstones are harder to find they are not subjected to as much vandalism and may therefore be around longer. If something is not done to protect this cemetery, and other center-city Allentown cemeteries, much history will be lost as tombstones are destroyed and moved about by vandals. I have photographed their tombstones.
Links to other surnames and web sites of prime genealogical interest to me:
Kerchner Genealogy Home Page.
Lucy Ann Walbert Genealogy Home Page.
Additional Surnames of Interest to Me.
Pennsylvania GenWeb home page.
Lehigh County PA GenWeb home page.
Lehigh County Historical Society home page.
Rootsweb RSL List surname search engine.
Palatines to America organization home page.
National Genealogical Society organization home page.
Cyndi's List of Genealogy Sites on the Internet home page.
18th Century PA German Naming Customs
18th Century PA German Nicknames
PA German Name Spelling Idiosyncrasies
PA Dutch Are Of German Heritage, Not Dutch
Tips & Tricks For The Beginner - Genealogy 101
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Page Created: 01 Sep 1996
Last Updated: 22 Mar 2014